Why is the Birth of Christ celebrated in the Winter Solstice and His Death and Resurrection in the Spring Equinox?

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Answers from the books of Samael Aun Weor

My brothers and sisters: observe the King of Stars in his elliptical orbit as he travels from south to north and back again. ... The Sun-god, however, does advance northwards on December 24th to animate and give heat and life to all creatures.

The Infant-Sun is born on December 24th in order to dawn on December 25th; he crucifies himself at the spring equinox to give life to all that exists. The fixed date of his birth and the variable date of his death have a profound significance in all religious theologies. In the northern regions of our world, in winter, there are long hours of darkness and few hours of light. On one of those very long nights, the Child of the Sun was born, frail and helpless, in this humble stable, our world.

The sign of the Celestial Virgin rises on the horizon at Christmas, and it is then that the Child is born to save the world. The Christ-Sun, in His childhood, is surrounded by dangers, and the kingdom of darkness lasts longer than His [of light] in the beginning, but He lives despite all the dangers that threaten Him.

Time passes... the days become cruelly longer, and the spring equinox arrives. This is Holy Week, the moment of crossing from one extreme to another, the moment of the Lord’s crucifixion in this world. The Christ-Sun crucifies Himself on planet Earth to give life to all that exists. After His death, He resurrects in all creation, ripening the grapes and the grain. The law of the Logos is sacrifice.

This is the cosmic drama that is repeated from moment to moment in all infinite space, in all worlds, in all suns. This is the cosmic drama that is represented in all the temples of Egypt, Greece, India, Mexico, etc. This is the cosmic drama that is represented in all the temples of all the worlds of infinite space.

The secondary aspect of this great drama has its parallel in the life of any high initiate who, by a revolution of consciousness, obtains the Venustic initiation and becomes a Solar Hero.

Samael Aun Weor, Christmas Message 1966-1967, Chapter 1, The Infant Sun.